The unwillingness to postpone enjoyment, and alfred marshall pain and pleasure to save for future use, is measured by the interest on accumulated wealth which just affords a sufficient incentive to save for the future. But the motive is supplied by a definite amount of money: A shilling is the measure of less pleasure, or satisfaction of any kind, to a rich man than to a poor one. No one can compare and measure accurately against one another even his own mental states at different times: Here, as elsewhere, we must bear in mind that the desire to make money does not itself necessarily proceed from motives of a low order, even when it is to be spent on oneself.
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Book One: Preliminary Survey
The pay may be on its way to be spent selfishly or unselfishly, for noble or base ends; and here the variety of human nature comes into play. But this source of error also is lessened when we are able to consider the actions and the motives of large groups of people. When we speak alfred marshall pain and pleasure the measurement of desire by the action to which it forms the incentive, it is not to be supposed that we assume every action to be deliberate, and the outcome of calculation. But in fact economists, like all other students of social science, are concerned with individuals chiefly as members of the social organism.
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For just as a racehorse or an athlete strains every nerve to get in advance of his competitors, and delights in the strain; so a manufacturer or a trader is often stimulated much more by the hope of victory over his rivals than by the desire to add something to his fortune. And it is true that the best energies of the ablest inventors and organizers of improved methods and appliances are stimulated by a noble emulation more than by any love of wealth for its own sake. But, though not so obvious a priori, it will also be found to be true that there is a fundamental unity of form underlying all the chief of them; and that in consequence, by studying them together, the same kind of economy is gained, as by sending a single postman to deliver all the letters in a certain street, instead of each one entrusting his letters to a separate messenger. They deal with man as he is: Alfred marshall pain and pleasure in the first place, they deal with facts which can be observed, and quantities which can be measured and recorded; so alfred marshall pain and pleasure when differences of opinion arise with regard to them, the differences can be brought to the test of public and well-established records; and thus science obtains a solid basis on which to work.